1. The list of top 10 fundamental research results of NASB for 2016 starts with the result of young employees of the Stepanov Institute of Physics , who managed to create a new method of localising quantum states of light based on a limited number of so-called reconstruction measurements. The method enables an efficient quantum tomography of light. The result was published in 'Nature', one of the most prestigious science publications in the world.
2. The second result - a prediction and implementation of a new type of light fields - was also obtained by the academic staff of the Institute of Physics: It involves tunable Airy laser beams, which have shape-preserving properties even during propagation in diffusive and inhomogeneous media. Such beams are required for the delivery of light energy over long distances compared with the conventional (Gaussian) beam.
3. Employees of the Joint Institute of Informatics Problems of the National Academy of Sciences have developed a new method for the analysis of complex large size images, based on information technology in-depth study. Commenting on the results, Vice-Chairman of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences, Academician Sergei Kilin, explained that the method allowed to develop a highly efficient automatic analysis of histological images, to e.g. determine the presence of breast cancer at the earliest stage of the disease. The team of authors participated in the international competitions 'TUPAC16' and 'CAMELYON16' in 2016, which were devoted to the automated detection of breast cancer. More than 100 professional teams from around the world participated in the 'Prediction of the proliferation score based on mitosis counting' at TUPAC16. The team from Belarus was shortlisted, beating teams from US, British and German universities.
4. Employees of the SSPA 'Powder Metallurgy' set of mass transfer mechanisms in silicon sintering processes and carbon nano-additive that enable the development of lightweight structural elements of the composite on the basis of silicon carbide ceramics with unique mechanical and thermal properties (layered identity of the coefficients of thermal linear expansion and thermal deformation). This result aims to create a large astronomical mirrors for use in outer space.
5. Employees of the SSPA 'SPC for Materials together with physicists discovered, stimulated and laser radiation in multicomponent direct-gap semiconductors and set the radiative recombination mechanism, leading to their appearance in the film structures for creating a new generation of solar cells.
6. Scientists from the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry of NASB synthesized modified amino deuterium, nucleic and fatty acids, which have the effect of significantly slowing biochemical reactions that cause various diseases. The effect is realized by replacing hydrogen by deuterium atoms at specific locations of biomolecules that exhibit instability to oxidation. The resulting compounds are promising for a new generation of drugs.
7. A team of scientists from the Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering of NASB and the Institute of Physiology of NASB obtained fundamentally important results for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders and neurodestructive pathologies, including genetic modifications using dendrimers cells of nervous tissue for the purpose of overproduction in these neurotrophic factor stimulating the recovery of peripheral nerve, and the use of recombinant human lactoferrin. This result shows ways to solve the most complicated problems of the regeneration of nerve cells.
8. Scientists of the Institute of Microbiology of NASB first discovered chemical compounds - modulators (isopropanol, ethanol, choline chloride), significantly accelerating the production of micro-organisms the enzyme glucose oxidase, which is the basis for an effective heat-stable formulation with high catalytic activity, used in devices of bioelectronics.
9. The staff of the Institute of History of NASB opened and studied archaeological complex: Cordon Dvina Vitebsk - a unique monument of Eastern Europe Viking Age (VIII-X centuries.). Materials complex prove participation Vikings in the development of trade-economic potential of the region, reveal its extensive international ties and leading role in the formation of the Dnieper-Lovatskaya segment route 'from the Vikings to the Greeks' at an early stage (IX - the middle of the X century.) Formation of state structures in the eastern Slavs.
10. Scientists SPC NAS of Belarus on agriculture developed and tested the unique technology for producing regenerated in vitro from the anthers of rye-crop, difficult-to-regeneration on artificial medium. Creating a doubled haploid (DH-lines) allows you to halve the time for obtaining homozygous form of rye as a parent component and speed selection.
Source: NASB (in Russian)